Article courtesy of Dr. Nicholas DiNubile, Vice President of the A4M, an orthopedic surgeon specializing in

Article courtesy of Dr. Nicholas DiNubile, Vice President of the A4M, an orthopedic surgeon specializing in sports medicine, best selling author, keynote speaker, and one of our medical editors who is dedicated to keeping you healthy in body, mind and spirit. Planet earth really should be called the water planet. 71% of the earth’s surface is covered with water. Also, when you explore land, air, and sea, it becomes quite obvious that perhaps the most interesting world lies under the water. An ecosystem so diverse, expansive and fascinating. It should be no surprise that water has an even more amazing impact on the human body where well over 50% is made up of water-more so for some parts (blood 90%, brain 85%, muscle and skin 70%). It is no wonder why you can go many weeks without food but can survive only a few days without water. Water is an essential nutrient for optimal function of the human machine, yet most of us (estimated 75%) do not get enough. Most of us spend the day mildly dehydrated, approximately one quart low, something not good for your health. Water is important to virtually every organ system in the body. It carries nutrients through the system and aids in purif...

Ultrahydrophobic 3D/2D fluoroarene bilayer-based water-resistant perovskite solar cells with efficiencies exceeding 22%

↵† Present address: Laboratory for Solar Energy & Fuels, University of British Columbia, V1V 1V7 Kelowna, BC, Canada. Preventing the degradation of metal perovskite solar cells (PSCs) by humid air poses a substantial challenge for their future deployment. We introduce here a two-dimensional (2D) A2PbI4 perovskite layer using pentafluorophenylethylammonium (FEA) as a fluoroarene cation inserted between the 3D light-harvesting perovskite film and the hole-transporting material (HTM). The perfluorinated benzene moiety confers an ultrahydrophobic character to the spacer layer, protecting the perovskite light-harvesting material from ambient moisture while mitigating ionic diffusion in the device. Unsealed 3D/2D PSCs retain 90% of their efficiency during photovoltaic operation for 1000 hours in humid air under simulated sunlight. Remarkably, the 2D layer also enhances interfacial hole extraction, suppressing nonradiative carrier recombination and enabling a power conversion efficiency (PCE) >22%, the highest reported for 3D/2D architectures. Our new approach provides water- and heat-resistant operationally stable PSCs with a record-level PCE. Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) hav...